Glossary

List

50 of 105 (of 105)

Account
In accountancy, an account means an individual budget item
Account class
Account classes are categories of budget items (accounts) that can contain both expenses and revenue.
Assessment (Health Promotion/Prevention)
To measure and analyze health-related problems in a population.
Assessment (Quality development)
The systematic assessment of structures, processes and outcomes of an organization or organizational unit, a programme or a project.
Assessment quality
The assessment quality of a project is high if both normative (objective) and felt (subjective) needs are substantiated, if the context of the project is taken into account thus allowing the project to be well integrated in its social environment.
Behaviour - living conditions
Human behaviour and life circumstances are intimately linked and have strong mutual influences. Health promotion aims at enabling individuals, groups and organizations to shape their behaviour and their circumstances in such a way as to be beneficial to their health and quality of life.
Benchmarking
To measure or assess products, services and processes in comparison with the acknowledged leaders in the field in order to learn from the 'best' (quality development).
Certification
The formal acknowledgement that an organization (-al unit) fulfils the conditions linked to certification. Certification is carried out by an accredited organization.
Complexity
Complexity implies diversity and multi-dimensionality. In contrast to complicated systems (e.g. technical equipment), complex systems, such as social systems, are not entirely predictable and calculable.
Context
The framework within which a project, for example, takes place and by which it is affected (e.g. political, legal, social / cultural, economic, environmental and institutional factors).
Contractual objectives
Contractually binding project objectives and intermediate objectives.
Controlling
Controlling of processes and activities on the basis of a target-performance analysis.
Desired value
When a project objective is operationalized, the desired value is a quantitative measure to which one aspires and is associated to an indicator. It is set on the basis of the actual value.
Determinants of Health
Scientifically documented factors influencing the health of individuals, groups or populations are called Health Determinants. However, the expression "determinants" is ill chosen in this context. While health is influenced by these factors, it is not determined by them in the sense of 'absolute certainty'.
Effect
Changes in settings due to interventions. Apart from intended effects, which are described in the objectives, unintentional positive or negative changes (side-effects) are often observed.
Effektivität
Adequacy of a measure in terms of its intended effect.
Efficiency
The relation between a result and the means employed to achieve it.
Empowerment
Reinforcement of the ability of individuals or groups to make decisions and have control over decisions and actions affecting their health, including opportunities to shape their own environments and the conditions which have an impact on health.
European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM)
The founder of the EFQM-model, a European quality management system based on TQM (Total Quality Management).
Evaluation
The systematic collection and analysis of information not routinely available about the different aspects of a project or an intervention and its critical appraisal; taking into account different perspectives and applying adequate (social-) scientific research methods and theories.
Evaluation (external)
The systematic appraisal of an issue from an external point of view (e.g. through professional evaluators).
Financial backers
Institutions providing funds for a project and usually making certain demands on the project (see 'Stakeholders') which are agreed by contract.
Gender
As distinct from 'sex' (which is biological), gender usually refers to psychological or socially/culturally constructed characteristics which are then attributed to the different biological sexes. It also refers to the relationship between the two sexes.
Guiding principles - charter
A charter describes the guiding principles of an organization, including mission statement, values and norms. The organization's activities (internal and external) will be guided by this document.
Health
Health is a state of equilibrium between factors conducive to health and those which influence health in a negative way. Health means that people are able to mobilize and use their resources in the best possible way in order to face up to both personal (physical and mental) and external (social and material) demands.
Health Promotion
Health promotion is the process of enabling individuals, groups and organizations to maintain and improve the factors for health by changes in lifestyle and environment. Health promotion not only embraces actions directed at strengthening the skills and capabilities of individuals, but also action towards changing social, environmental and economic conditions so as to improve their impact on public and individual health.
Health equity
Equity in health means that all people, irrespective of ethnic or socio-economic status, sex or age, have equal opportunity to develop and maintain health through fair and just access to resources for health.
Implementation
Implementation of measures in settings with regular, critical reflection of the concept, resulting in continuous development and improvement of the project.
Indicator
An indicator is a dimension that can be measured, observed and analyzed by empirical methods. Indicators serve as surrogate measures when assessing (usually complex) phenomena that cannot be directly quantified or evaluated.
Information management
The maintenance and enlargement of the total existing knowledge base in an organization.
International Organization for Standardisation (ISO)
ISO is the international organization dedicated to the standardisation of products, services and management systems.
Intervention
In prevention and health promotion, interventions are understood to be measures which aim at changing people's environments in order to maintain or improve health or to avoid ill-health. They must be based on scientific and professional criteria, and embrace a systematic and participatory approach.
Intervision
Exchange of experiences between professionals from different organizations, programmes and projects, but fulfilling a similar role or function.
Levels of action
System levels where interventions in settings can take place: individual, group, organization, environment/networks, society/political level.
Management
The totality of activities for the systematic planning and managing of a project, a programme or an organization.
Measure
Concrete activities derived from a strategy, with clearly defined time points and responsabilities, with the aim of achieving project goals and (intermediate) objectives.
Method
A systematic approach for carrying out a task or to gain knowledge.
Migration
Migration refers to the migratory movements of population groups. In the context of health promotion, to consider the migratory aspect refers to the need of giving adequate consideration to the specific challenges of migrants.
Milestone
Milestones are breakpoints in the implementation phase of a project. Milestones divide a project into several stages (of roughly equal length) and are a useful project management tool. The name is derived from the literal meaning: every mile a stone.
Monitoring
Continuous or periodic systematic data collection used for checking processes and results.
Need (felt/expressed)
Contrary to a normative need, a felt need is the subjective need that members of a certain setting or population group feel and sometimes express (the users' perspective).
Need (normative/objective)
Need defined by experts or professionals, usually on the grounds of a scientifically substantiated deficiency in certain settings or population groups (the experts' perspective).
Networking
Collaboration across the boundaries of sectors, disciplines, hierarchies, institutions and projects.
Objective
The state of a defined system (target system) which ought to be achieved by a specific date.
Objective category
Objective categories are categories of goals, aims and objectives. These are used for classifying aims and objectives according to themes, geographical location or target groups, for example.
Organization development
Systematic development of the structures and processes of an organization with the aim of securing its long term existence and of improving it continuously.
Ottawa Charter (WHO)
Groundbreaking charter adopted by the First International Conference on Health Promotion held in Ottawa in October 1986, based on the WHO programme 'Health for All'.
Outcome
Totality of effects achieved by a project.
Outcome model
The description or graphic representation (diagram) of the interactions between causes and effects regarding interventions in social environments and systems.
Outcome objective
Outcome objectives or outcome targets - in contrast to performance targets - indicate the effects that are to be achieved in the target systems.
Last modification: 15 September, 2016 13:11