Results and outcome

Complex correlations of cause and effect make planning and proving effects difficult. It is therefore helpful for you to:

  • clarify the key assumptions about the effects of the project (outcome models)
  • formulate measurable objectives as far as possible (SMART objectives, achievement of objectives)
  • carry out ongoing and final reviews of the achievement of objectives (controlling and achievement of objectives)

There is generally no evidence of effects for complex correlations. However, evaluations can provide indications of plausible (as well-founded as possible) effects and correlations of cause and effect.

Projects   Programs

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  • Das Projekt hat seine Ziele erreicht und die Voraussetzungen für nachhaltige Wirkungen sind gegeben.

    Indicators Project phases
    PD IM VA

    In der Konzeption sind Überlegungen angestellt, wie die Massnahmen und Aktivitäten auch nach Projektende weitergeführt und die Wirkungen und Ergebnisse fortbestehen werden sollen.

    Mit dem Projekt sind diejenigen Personen und Gruppen erreicht worden, bei denen tatsächlich ein besonderer Interventionsbedarf besteht.

    Das Projekt hat in den gewählten Settings und Zielgruppen die gewünschten Wirkungen erzeugt (Zielerreichung).

    Die Voraussetzungen für eine Verankerung des Projekts sind gegeben (Einbettung, politischer Rückhalt, Unterstützung durch wichtige Organisationen, längerfristig gesicherte Finanzierung usw.).

  • Die Evaluation trägt dazu bei, das Projekt fundiert zu steuern (formativ) und die Wirkungen des Projekts abschliessend zu beurteilen (summativ).

    Indicators Project phases
    PD IM VA

    Es ist geklärt, welchem Zweck die Evaluation dient und welche Fragen zu welchem Zeitpunkt beantwortet werden sollen.

    Methoden, Zeitpunkte und Verantwortlichkeiten für die Evaluation sind festgelegt. Für umfangreiche Evaluationen liegt ein Evaluationskonzept vor.

    Die Evaluationsergebnisse (Erfolgsfaktoren, Stolpersteine usw.) werden für die Projektsteuerung verwendet.

    Die Evaluation überprüft die Zielerreichung und berücksichtigt auch nicht beabsichtigte Wirkungen.

  • Ergebnisse und Erkenntnisse des Projekts werden zielgerichtet verbreitet und für eine Multiplikation des Projekts nutzbar gemacht.

    Indicators Project phases
    PD IM VA

    Die Ergebnisse und Erkenntnisse aus dem Projekt sind nachvollziehbar aufbereitet und für Interessierte zugänglich (Projektberichte, Umsetzungsleitfäden, Webseiten usw.).

    Die Ergebnisse und Erkenntnisse werden gezielt für andere Projekte und Anliegen nutzbar gemacht.

    Die Voraussetzungen für eine Multiplikation des Projekts sind gegeben (Flexibilität der Massnahmen, Ressourcen, Rechte, Hilfsmittel, verantwortliche Stelle).

    Die Projektleitung oder andere Projektbeteiligte sind bereit, ihre Erfahrungen und Erkenntnisse für die Multiplikation des Projekts oder den Transfer von Erkenntnissen zur Verfügung zu stellen.

Quality criteria (projects) 5.2 (pdf)

  • The evaluation chart will help you decide on the most appropriate methods for assessing the achievement of an objective or an intermediate target. The systematic assessment of results will help you in the management of your project and will provide evidence of success. The chart also provides space for additional questions to do with evaluation. Questions regarding evaluation type, data collection methods, time frames and assignment of responsibilities will be determined on the basis of this document.


    Instructions (pdf) | Template (
  • Usually, some evaluation measures are sketched out during the planning and design phase of a project. The evaluation plan allows a more detailed presentation of these measures. An evaluation plan is particularly helpful, and recommended, if a large evaluation is envisaged and if many questions regarding evaluation are left open in the project design. If an external organization is to be entrusted with the evaluation, an evaluation plan is compulsory – as a basis for discussion and for quotes. Pondering evaluation questions is helpful for clarifying one’s own expectations and for developing new and interesting lines of thought. Even if one is unfamiliar with evaluation, it makes sense to start thinking about possible evaluation methods. External evaluation experts can help to choose the best methodology for obtaining answers to the evaluation questions.

    Instructions (pdf) | Template (
  • At the conclusion of a project/program, the time is now to give an account of the project’s success, to reflect on the implementation and to document findings and lessons learned.

    This guideline will inform you about the aspects that should be covered and discussed in some detail in a final report. The list of items is also available as a Word template.

    Instructions (pdf) | Template (
  • „Solid and goal-oriented public relations can only be sustainable if they are applied with methodology and according to a strategy“. (Horst P. Borghs). The information strategy is a planning tool which encourages a comprehensive approach to all tasks in a project that have to do with information, external communication and public relations. It is always goal-oriented.

    Instructions (pdf)
  • The Swiss Model for Outcome Classification in Health Promotion and Prevention (SMOC) is a tool which may be used for analysis and quality development. In order to exploit its full potential, it should not be used by the project manager or evaluator alone, but should be used collectively e.g. in a meeting of the entire project team, or between the evaluators and key project members, etc. Generally speaking, the SMOC can be used to analyse a situation, to plan an intervention and to evaluate a measure.

    Outcome classification

    Instructions (pdf) | Overview (pdf) | Template (
  • Have you presented and reflected on the suspected correlations of cause and effect in an outcome model?
  • Will the assessment of objective achievement be available sufficiently early to influence decision-making processes?
  • In what way should the effects of the project persist after the project is complete?
  • Changes in settings due to interventions. Apart from intended effects, which are described in the objectives, unintentional positive or negative changes (side-effects) are often observed.
  • Adequacy of a measure in terms of its intended effect.
  • The relation between a result and the means employed to achieve it.
  • Totality of effects achieved by a project.
  • The description or graphic representation (diagram) of the interactions between causes and effects regarding interventions in social environments and systems.
  • Outcome objectives or outcome targets - in contrast to performance targets - indicate the effects that are to be achieved in the target systems.
  • Totality of services provided and products generated by a project.
  • The quality of products and efforts (output) and results (outcome). A project is of high quality if the stated objectives and the desired effects have been achieved and without having caused important negative side effects.
  • The act of preparing, sharing and exploiting the insights, experiences and evaluation results of a project.
Last modification: 20 January, 2017 14:12